Veda:- Hinduism Vedas with purpose of Base for Modren Science & Technology.
Hinduism is the oldest surviving religion.Its date of origion is Immeasurable.
In Vedic Hymns River Sarasvati is Described to be Actually flowing and Existent.
The Date of Origion Of Veda is Immeasureable .The Ancient manuscripts of Hinduism are in Sanskrit.
These Include the Vedas and theUpanishads.Here is Ancient Holy Books:-
Details Of Vedas:-
Few of them Are:-
+__The Ayurveda(Science of Life & Health)
+__The Dhanurva Veda(Science of War)
+__The Gandharva Veda(Science of Music)
+__The Artha Sastra(A process of Civil Goverment)
+__The Siksha(Phonetics_study & Clasification of speech)
+__The Mirukta(Philosophy or Etymology)
+__The Jyotisha(Astronomy and Astrology)
Veda (Primary & Authoritive Scripture)
The Vedas are apaurusheya "not of human agency", are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called sruti ("what is heard").
The four Samhitas are metrical (with the exception of prose commentary interspersed in the Krishna Yajurveda). The term samhita literally
means "composition, compilation". The individual verses contained in these compilations are known as mantras. Some selected Vedic mantras
are still recited at prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions in contemporary Hinduism.
The term upaveda ("applied knowledge") is used in traditional literature to designate the subjects of certain technical works. Lists of
what subjects are included in this class differ among sources. The Charanavyuha mentions four Upavedas: Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Gandharva Veda,
The Vedanga ( veda?ga, "member of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines traditionally associated with the study and understanding of the Vedas.
1. Shiksha (siksa): phonetics and phonology (sandhi), 2. Kalpa (kalpa): ritual, 3. Vyakarana (vyakarana): grammar, 4. Nirukta (nirukta): etymology,
5. Chandas (chandas): meter, 6. Jyotisha (jyotisa): astronomy for calendar issues, such as auspicious days for performing sacrifices. Traditionally,
vyakarana and nirukta are common to all four Vedas, while each veda has its own siksa, chandas, kalpa and jyotisa texts. The Vedangas are first
mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad (at 1.1.5) as subjects for students of the Vedas. Later, they developed into independent disciplines, each with
its own corpus of Sutras.
Samhita (Sanskrit sa?hita "joined" or "collected") may refer to" the basic metrical (mantra) text of each of the Vedas, specifically, these texts
with sandhi applied.
The Aranyakas (Sanskrit aranyaka are part of the Hindu sruti, the four Vedas; they were composed in late Vedic Sanskrit typical of the Brahmanas
and early Upanishads; indeed, they frequently form part of either the Brahmanas or the Upanishads.
The Brahmanas (Devanagari: are part of the Hindu sruti literature. They are commentaries on the four Vedas, detailing the proper performance of rituals.
Upanishad (Vedanta Darshana)
The Upanishads are mostly the concluding part of the Brahmanas, and the transition from the latter to the former is identified as the Aranyakas.
All Upanishads have been passed down in oral tradition.
Yoga-darsana (the philosophy of Yoga) is based on the exposition of the epistemological, metaphysical, and methodological ideas of an age-long meditative
tradition codified in the work of Patanjali and widely known as Yoga Sutras. As distinct from the Tantra and Hatha-Yoga traditions, Yoga-darsana is
concerned primarily with acquisition and perpetuation of two states of mind referred to as "collocative" (sapaksa) with Yoga, namely, the state of the
onepointed mind (ekagrata) and the state of the inhibited mental functions (niruddha). The Yoga itself is being equated with samadhi.
Samkhya, also Sankhya, Sankhya, or Samkhya (Sanskrit: IAST: sankhya;) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. Sage Kapila is
traditionally considered as the founder of the Samkhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as one of the oldest
philosophical systems in India.
Mimamsa , a Sanskrit word meaning "investigation", is the name of an astika ("orthodox") school of Hindu philosophy whose primary enquiry is into
the nature of dharma based on close hermeneutics of the Vedas. The nature of dharma isn't accessible to reason or observation, and must be inferred
from the authority of the revelation contained in the Vedas, which are considered eternal, authorless (apaurusheyatva), and infallible.
Vaisheshika, or Vaisesika, (Sanskrit:) is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. Historically, it has been closely
associated with the Hindu school of logic, Nyaya.
Nyaya (Sanskrit ni-ayá, literally "recursion", used in the sense of "syllogism, inference") is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools
of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. The Nyaya school of philosophical speculation is based on texts known as the Nyaya Sutras, which were
written by Aksapada Gautama
The Puranas (Sanskrit: purana, "of ancient times") are a genre of important Hindu, Jain or Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of
the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy,
Agama (Sanskrit ) means, in the Hindu context, "a traditional doctrine, or system which commands faith". Elaborate rules are laid out in the Agamas for worship,
construction of temple, and so on.
Smriti (Sanskrit: Smrti, IPA: [smriti] ?) literally "that which is remembered," refers to a specific body of Hindu religious scripture, and is a codified
component of Hindu customary law. Smriti also denotes non-Shruti texts and is generally seen as secondary in authority to Shruti.
The word Tantra also applies to any of the scriptures (called "Tantras") commonly identified with the worship of Shakti. Tantra deals primarily with
spiritual practices and ritual forms of worship, which aim at liberation from ignorance and rebirth, the universe being regarded as the divine play of
Shakti and Shiva.
In Hinduism sutra denotes a distinct type of literary composition, based on short aphoristic statements, generally using various technical terms.
This literary form was designed for concision, as the texts were intended to be memorized by students in some of the formal methods of scriptural
and scientific study (Sanskrit: svadhyaya). Since each line is highly condensed, another literary form arose in which commentaries (Sanskrit: bha?ya)
on the sutras were added, to clarify and explain them.
The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, also termed Itihasa (History) or Mahakavya ("Great Compositions"), refer to epic poems that
form a canon of Hindu scripture. Indeed, the epic form prevailed and verse was and remained until very recently the preferred form of Hindu literary works.
Hero-worship was and is a central aspect of Indian culture, and thus readily lent itself to a literary tradition that abounded in epic poetry and literature.
The Gitas (Song of God), also more simply known as Gita, is a sacred Hindu scriptures, though its philosophies and insights are intended to reach beyond
the scope of religion and to humanity as a whole. It is at times referred to as the "manual for mankind" and has been highly praised
Details/List of Upanishadas
From The Rigveda__________
001 Aitareya Upanishad
002 Aksha-Malika Upanishad - about rosary beads
003 Atma-Bodha Upanishad
004 Bahvricha Upanishad
005 Kaushitaki-Brahmana Upanishad
006 Mudgala Upanishad
007 Nada-Bindu Upanishad
008 Nirvana Upanishad
009 Saubhagya-Lakshmi Upanishad
010 Tripura Upanishad
From the Shuklapaksha Yajurveda
011 Adhyatma Upanishad
012 Advaya-Taraka Upanishad
013 Bhikshuka Upanishad
014 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
015 Hamsa Upanishad
016 Isavasya Upanishad
017 Jabala Upanishad
018 Mandala-Brahmana Upanishad
019 Mantrika Upanishad
020 Muktika Upanishad
021 Niralamba Upanishad
022 Paingala Upanishad
023 Paramahamsa Upanishad
024 Satyayaniya Upanishad
025 Subala Upanishad
026 Tara-Sara Upanishad
027 Trisikhi-Brahmana Upanishad
028 Turiyatita-Avadhuta Upanishad
029 Yajnavalkya Upanishad
From the Krishnapaksha Yajurveda
030 Akshi Upanishad
031 Amritabindhu Upanishad
032 Amritanada Upanishad
033 Avadhuta Upanishad
034 Brahma-Vidya Upanishad
035 Brahma Upanishad
036 Dakshinamurti Upanishad
037 Dhyana-Bindu Upanishad
038 Ekakshara Upanishad
039 Garbha Upanishad
040 Kaivalya Upanishad
041 Kalagni-Rudra Upanishad
042 Kali-Santarana Upanishad
043 Katha Upanishad
044 Katharudra Upanishad
045 Kshurika Upanishad
046 Maha-Narayana (or) Yajniki Upanishad
047 Pancha-Brahma Upanishad
048 Pranagnihotra Upanishad
049 Rudra-Hridaya Upanishad
050 Sarasvati-Rahasya Upanishad
051 Sariraka Upanishad
052 Sarva-Sara Upanishad
053 Skanda Upanishad
054 Suka-Rahasya Upanishad
055 Svetasvatara Upanishad
056 Taittiriya Upanishad
057 Tejabindu Upanishad
058 Varaha Upanishad
059 Yoga-Kundalini Upanishad
060 Yoga-Sikha Upanishad
061 Yoga-Tattva Upanishad
From the Samaveda
062 Aruni (Aruneyi) Upanishad
063 Avyakta Upanishad
064 Chandogya Upanishad
065 Darsana Upanishad
066 Jabali Upanishad
067 Kena Upanishad
068 Kundika Upanishad
069 Maha Upanishad
070 Maitrayani Upanishad
071 Maitreya Upanishad
072 Rudraksha-Jabala Upanishad
073 Sannyasa Upanishad
074 Savitri Upanishad
075 Vajrasuchika Upanishad
076 Vasudeva Upanishad
077 Yoga-Chudamani Upanishad
From the Atharvaveda
078 Annapurna Upanishad
079 Atharvasikha Upanishad
080 Atharvasiras Upanishad
081 Atma Upanishad
082 Bhasma-Jabala Upanishad
083 Bhavana Upanishad
084 Brihad-Jabala Upanishad
085 Dattatreya Upanishad
086 Devi Upanishad
087 Ganapati Upanishad
088 Garuda Upanishad
089 Gopala-Tapaniya Upanishad
090 Hayagriva Upanishad
091 Krishna Upanishad
092 Maha-Vakya Upanishad
093 Mandukya Upanishad
094 Mundaka Upanishad
095 Narada-Parivrajaka Upanishad
096 Nrisimha-Tapaniya Upanishad
097 Para-Brahma Upanishad
098 Paramahamsa-Parivrajaka Upanishad
099 Pasupata Brahmana Upanishad
100 Prasna Upanishad
101 Rama Rahasya Upanishad
102 Rama-Tapaniya Upanishad
103 Sandilya Upanishad
104 Sarabha Upanishad
105 Sita Upanishad
106 Surya Upanishad
107 Tripadvibhuti-Mahanarayana Upanishad
108 Tripura-Tapini Upanishad
List of Puranas:-
001 Brahma Purana
002 Padma Purana
003 Vishnu Purana
004 Shiva Purana
005 Bhagwata Purana
006 Narayana Purana
007 Markandeya Purana
008 Agni Purana
009 Bhavishya Purana
010 Brahma Vaivarta Purana
011 Linga Purana
012 Varaha Purana
013 Skanda Purana
014 Vamana Purana
015 Kurma Purana
016 Matsya Purana
017 Garuda Purana
018 Brahmanda Purana
by Dr.Shashi Tiwari (Retd.), Sanskrit Department, Delhi University
The Vedangas are the last treatises of the Vedic Literature. Paniniya Shiksha (41-42) narrates two verses on the
importance of the Vedangas which describe Veda as a Purusha having six limbs as six Vedangas: Chandas are His two feet,
Kalpa are His two arms, Jyotisha are His eyes, Nirukta is His ears, Shiksha is His nose and Vyakarana is His mouth.
The oldest record of their names occurs in the Mundaka Upanishad (1.1.5) where they are named as:
Shiksha or phonetics or pronunciation
Kalpa or ritual
Vyakarana or grammar
Nirukta or etymology
Chandas or meter
Jyotisha or astronomy
Now we shall briefly study about them in the order, given in the Mundaka Upanishad.
Shiksha really means instruction: then in particular ‘instruction in reciting' i.e., in correct pronunciation, accentuation etc.
of the Samhita texts. Later, it was a name given to works containing rules regarding the proper pronunciation of Vedic texts. Thus,
the Shiksha-Sutras are treatises on phonetics. They are related to the Samhitas and, therefore, are almost as old as the Kalpa-Sutras.
Shiksha lays down the rules of phonetics - sounds of syllables, of pronunciation. The function of the Shiksha is thus to fix the parameters
of Vedic words. Phonetics is most important in the case of the Vedic language, because we see that change in sound leads to change in results
and effect. Hence, Shiksha which is Vedic Phonetics has been regarded as the most important of the six Angas (organs) of the Veda Purusha.
Some important Pratishakhyas are:
(1) Rigveda-Pratishakhya of Rigveda
(2) Taittiriya-Pratishakhya of Krishna Yajurveda
(3) Vajasaneyi Pratishakhya of Shukla Yajurveda
(4) Atharvaveda-Pratishakhya of Atharvaveda
The second Vedanga is Kalpa (ritual) which is called the arms of the Veda Purusha. It is especially intended for the proper application of the Vedic texts.
The oldest Kalpasutras are those which in their contents are directly connected with the Brahmanas and Aranyakas. It was the ritual (Kalpa), the chief
contents of the Brahmanas, which first received systematic treatment in the manuals called the Kalpasutras. They contain the rules in the Sutra style,
referring to sacrifices, with the omission of all things which are not immediately connected with the ceremonial. They are more practical than the Brahmanas
which for the most part are taken up with mystical, historical, mythological, etymological and theological discussions. They are also considered significant for
the study of Vedic culture and society.
There are four types of the Kalpasutras:
(1) Shrauta-sutras, dealing with Shrauta sacrifices
(2) Grihya-sutras, dealing with the domestic ceremonies
(3) Dharma-sutras, dealing with the religious and social laws
(4) Shulba-sutras, dealing with the rules of measurement of the fire-altars etc.
The third Vedanga is Vyakarana or grammar, which is necessary for the understanding of the Veda. It is called the mouth of the Veda Purusha.
The old Vedanga-texts on Vyakarana are entirely lost today. In the Aranyakas, we find some technical terms of grammar. The only representative
of this Vedanga is the Ashtadhyayi of Panini, which belongs to a later period. It is indeed the most celebrated text-book of grammar. It is not
associated with any Vedic school. Due to its great merits, this may be assumed that Panini superseded all his predecessors, whose works have consequently perished.
Formation of the word is the main subject of grammar. It discusses root (Prakriti) and suffix (Pratyaya) of a word to study its meaning. Panini's Vyakarana is in
the form of sutras or aphorisms. The fourteen Sutras are referred to here, as Maheswara Sutras. They were originated from Nataraja's damuru sound. They are
considered the foundation of grammar. Vararuci has written an elaborate commentary or Vartika. Sage Patanjali wrote commentary or Bhashya on it.
Nirukta Vedanga is called the ears of the Veda Purusha. 'Nirukta' means 'etymology' and it explains the reason why a particular word has been used i.e.,
the meaning of usage. The only work which has survived as a specimen of this Vedanga 'etymology' is the Nirukta of Yaska. It is a commentary on Nighantu
which is 'list of words' found in the Vedas. Tradition ascribes the Nighantu also to Yaska. The Nighantus are five lists of words, which are again divided
into three sections. The first section consists of three lists, in which Vedic words are collected under certain main ideas. The second section contains a
list of ambiguous and particularly difficult words of the Veda, while the third section gives a classification of the deities according to the three regions,
earth, sky and heaven. Yaska explained these lists in the twelve books followed. The most interesting portion of the Nirukta is the discussion which covers
the whole of the first book and a part of the second, as well as the seventh book, which was as an admirable introduction to the study of the Veda.
Yaska has mentioned a considerable number of important grammarians as his predecessors in the Nirukta such as Galava, Shakapuni, Katthakya.
Niruka is very important for several reasons. Firstly, it represents the type of the earliest classical style and in this respect stands by itself.
Secondly, it is the oldest known attempt in the field of Vedic etymology. As regards the importance of the etymology Yaska himself says that without
it the precise meanings of the Vedic stanzas cannot be understood.
Chandas Vedanga is regarded as the feet of the Veda Purusha. The body of the Vedas rests on the Chandas which are in the nature of feet. Each Mantra of
the Veda has a special Chandas, just as it has a presiding Devata.
According to Nirukta the term Chandas is derived from the root Chad (to cover). Meter is called Chandas because it covers the sense of the Mantra.
The Chandas is designed for the purpose of securing the proper reading and reciting of Vedic texts. The literature comprising this Vedanga on metrics
is equally small.
The texts, dealing with Vedic meters, are as follows :
2. Shankhayana Shrauta-sutra
3. Nidana-sutra of Samaveda
4. Chandas-sutras of Pingala
Each of them contains a section varying slightly from each other on Vedic meters.
The last Vedanga Jyotisha is called eye - the organ of sight, of the Veda Purusha. The object of Jyotisha Vedanga is not to teach astronomy,
but to convey such knowledge of the heavenly bodies as is necessary for fixing the days and hours of the Vedic sacrifices. It gives some rules
for calculating and fixing time for sacrifices. In the Brahmanas and Aranyakas, we find frequent allusions to astronomical subjects, and even in
the hymns we find traces which indicate a certain advance in the observation of the moon.
It is unfortunate that there is no work available at present dealing with ancient Vedic astronomy (Jyotisha) in the Sutra style. Only we have a small
text-book called Jyotisha of Vedic astronomy in verses in two recessions. Generally, Maharshi Lagadha is regarded author of this Vedanga Jyotisha.
This is a very difficult text and, therefore, is not clear on several points to scholars even today. Later, we find many Sanskrit treatises on astronomy
and mathematical calculations. Bhaskaracharya, Varahamihira and Aryabhatta are known ancient scholars conversant with these scientific subjects.
The principles established by them are in use in the modern world.
ORIGION:- Hinduism is the world oldest known Religion.History of Hinduism can be traced back to 5,000-7,000 B.C. Hinduism origionated Around the Indus
Valley near river Indus.Hindu is Derived from the Sanskrit word Sindhu used by the "ARAYANS".The words Hindu or Indu was used by greek and persians to denote the country and people living,
beyond the Indus River.
Unlike Most other religion,Hinduism has No single founder ,No single scripture,and No single governing body.
Hinduism is known as a "Way of Life" , or "A Family Of Religion" rather then A singlre religion.It is the reffered as the "SANATANA DHARMA","THE ENTERNAL LAW" or
"the Enternal Way" Beyond Human Origion. Hindus Belief that Existence is a cycle of Birth (Samsara),Death,and Rebirth,Governed by "Low of KARMA".All living creatures
have a soul .The spirit or true "Self" of every person called the "Ataman".The soul is believed to be Eternal.The Goal of Life in Hinduism is to Attain Salvation , or Moksha.
OBJECTIVE OF LIFE(Purusartha):-
+__DHARMA (Righteousness,Ethics).The foremost goal in Hinduism.Dharma Makes Life and Universe possible and includes duties ,Rights,Law,Conduct,Virtues and "Right
Objective and Virtuous pursuit of Wealth for livlihood,Obligations and Economic prosperity.
+__KARMA (Desire,Sensual Pleasure)
Desire,Wish,Passion,Longing,Pleasure of the Senses,The Aesthetic enjoyment of life,affection or Love, wiyh Or Without Sexual Connotations.
+__MOKSHA (Libration,Freedom from Samsara)
The Ultimate goal in Hinduism Moksha is Associated with Libration from Sorrow,Suffering and samsara (Birth and Rebirth Cycle)
All the books related to Hinduism are Written in one common Language,Sanskrit.The Most oldest Known Language in the World.Vedas from the Earliest record of the
Hinduism Scipture and are regarded as enternal Truhsreveated to the Ancient Sages.The Upanishadas are the Foundation of Hinduism Philosophical thought,and have
profoundly influenced divers traditions.The Epics consist of the "Mahabharata (10 times large than Iliad and Odyssey combined together) and the ramayana.
The Bhagavad Gita (Part of the Mahabhartha) is one of the most popular scared text of Hinduism.
GOD & GODDESSES:-
Hinduism has Many Gods and Goddesses all Manifestation of the Supreme being Shiva & Shakti.
Brahma:-The Creator of the all Universe
Vishnu:-The Preserver or Proctetor of the Universe.
Rudra:-The Distroyer of the Universe.
Shiva & Shakti:-Shiva & Shakti Supream Powar of Everything.
Varanasi (Kashi) The oldest city of India and Also considered as the most Holy of the places.
The sound heared at the time of creation of the Universe.
Cow the symbol of the Earth.It Always gives and Fieds,representing life and the support of the Life.
Bathing in the river Causes the remission of sins and Facilitates Moksha (Libration From the Cycle of life and Death)
"Mahakumbha Mela" A Hindu Festival is the largest Gathering of Human In the World.Buddism ,Jainism,Sikkism,Originated from Hinduism ,All these religion share
lot of common Philosophies.The Largest Hindu temple in the world is Surprisingly not in India but is in Angkor Wat,COMBODIA.The Holiest Number in Hinduism is 108 .Most
of the prayers beads have 108 beads.108 is the ratio of sun's Distance from Earth to Sun's diameter or Moon Distance from Earth to Moon's diameter.
YOGA:-Yoga the world's Most Practised form of spiriyual and physical fitness procedure,Originated from Hinduism in the Indus Saraswati Civilization 5000 year ago.